Innovation and talent in culture
The Dutch government stimulates innovation and talent in the cultural sector. It also seeks to foster the kind of innovation that is not the product of market forces.
The measures focus on three areas:
- vocational education: the government is responsible for good vocational education in the arts and ensures that such training matches labour market demand;
- major institutions must be open to innovation and young talent;
- the targeted use of cultural fundsto support innovation and nurture talent.
Cultural institutions include:
- institutions in the various sectors, such as architecture, the visual arts, dance, film, literature, music, music theatre, theatre and design;
- the heritage sector: archives, archaeology, historic buildings, museums;
- the media: newspapers, television and new media, including digital media and the internet;
- cultural funds established by central government.
Central government grants
The primary criterion for obtaining a grant is artistic quality, but the following criteria are also taken into account when assessing grant applications:
- the public: what does an institution do to attract visitors/audiences and secure their loyalty?
- entrepreneurship: does the institution have enough income of its own (at least 17.5%)?
- education and participation: are activities sufficiently accessible to children and young people?
- does the institution manage a national collection or does it offer something of national or international significance?
As of the next grant period (2013-2016), all arts institutions must be able to generate at least 17.5% of their own income (based on an average achieved in 2010 and 2011) in order to qualify for government funding. All performing arts institutions must be able to generate 21% of their income by 1 January 2013.
Grants from cultural funds
Apart from direct fundingby the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, institutions may also receive grants through the cultural funds set up by central government. The Performing Arts Fund, for instance, promotes dynamism and innovation in the field of the performing arts by topping up basic funding. There are also funds for cultural participation, the visual arts, film, literature and architecture, design and new media.
Private cultural funds
Private funds and initiatives also finance the arts. Prominent among them are the VSB Fund, the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds and the VandenEnde Foundation.
Division of responsibilities between tiers of government
The three tiers of government each have their own responsibilities in the field of cultural policy:
- municipal government: responsible for performing arts venues and funding the management of municipal collections and museums;
- provincial government: responsible for diversity and the distribution of arts facilities in the region, as well as for funding regional heritage (including provincial collections and museums);
- central government: responsible for providing a basic national infrastructure for the arts (including cultural funds) and funding the management of national collections.
Municipal authorities provide the lion's share of public funding for the arts: over 65%. Funding from provincial authorities amounts to around 5%.