Laws and rules on the export of strategic goods

Dutch laws and policies on export controls are based on international treaties and regimes. Each treaty or regime focuses on a specific subject, such as nuclear goods or missile technology.

International treaties on strategic goods and services

The Dutch government has ratified various international treaties on strategic goods and services:

  • Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty is a UN treaty that restricts the possession and development of nuclear weapons. It includes a list of goods and technologies that can be used to produce such weapons.
  • Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons.
  • Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)

    The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons.

International export control regimes on strategic goods

In export control regimes, countries conclude agreements to manage the import, export and transit of certain goods. The Netherlands participates in 5 such regimes:

  • Australia Group (AG)

    The Australia Group combats the proliferation of biological and chemical weapons.
  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

    The Missile Technology Control Regime regulates matters such as the export of missile components and components for unmanned aerial vehicles.
  • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

    The Nuclear Suppliers Group concludes agreements to prevent the proliferation of nuclear goods and technologies.
  • Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)

    The Wassenaar Arrangement includes agreements on export controls for military and dual-use goods.
  • Zangger Committee

    The Zangger Committee ensures that countries all interpret the nuclear export control policies under the Non-Proliferation Treaty in the same manner.