Appealing against a penalty for breaking rules during a secondary school final examination

If you broke a rule during your final examination, for example, if you cheated, the head of your school may take action. For example, you may be barred from retaking the examination. If you disagree with the penalty given, you may appeal to the commissie van beroep (appeals board) of your school.

Last updated on 23 May 2023

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Examination rules

Every secondary school in the Netherlands has examination rules. These set out the penalties that the head can apply when these rules are broken. Some examples would be cheating or not handing in your exam paper on time.


If the examination rules are broken, the school head can apply the following penalties:

  • a mark of 1 is awarded for an examination attempt;
  • you are no longer permitted to take the examination or certain subjects;
  • your past examination results are invalidated;
  • you must retake the examination.

Appealing to the appeals board

You can appeal against a sanction to the appeals board of your school. For the appeal procedure, please see the examination rules for your school.

Laws and regulations (in Dutch)

Wet voortgezet onderwijs 2020, artikelen 2.61, 2.63 en 2.64

Uitvoeringsbesluit WVO 2020, artikel 3.58

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